Children’s media is is like a warm, difficult, thrilling, heartbreaking, wonderful vortex of conflicts. Too many to cover in a single post. The obvious example is: what is the product? If you’re making television shows, that’s the product, right? No. Because that’s not what most people are paying for. Your target audience gets it free. Commercial broadcasters are selling ad space and so in a way the audience is the product while others sell products to that audience. What were once secondary revenue streams in licensing are now primary revenue streams for many in the business so toys are the product. And it goes on. That realisation can taint everything. It could make you disillusioned and cynical, unable to put your heart into it. Or it could motivate you to milk those kids for all they’re worth and I’m not sure that’s a good thing either.
What about the audience themselves? Who are you making the content for? Regular readers will know that audience awareness is a huge thing for me and years of time, experience and research goes into shaping content that works for my audience: young children. For me, they always come first.
But the buyers are adults.
TV channels are run by grown ups. Distributors? Yep, grown ups. Even parents who are the gatekeepers of content in their own homes are grown ups. And as is well covered on this blog, children and adults are not the same. They like different things. Some of those adults are very in tune with kids. But not all. And even those who know kids well can still be swayed by their own adult sensibilities just as we all are. That’s normal and to be expected.
So you can pitch to the adults and get your show on television but will it work for kids? Or you can make the best content for kids that few adults see the value of so it never gets a chance. Can you satisfy both? Should you?
These are just the tip of the iceberg. Conflicts everywhere.
So how we resolve these conflicts? Unfortunately most of them can’t be resolved. They are tied into the very core of kids’ media. What is important as you work in this area is that you recognise the conflicts when you find them and you make an active decision on where you stand with them. Otherwise you are navigating at random. For me, my focus is delivering the best for the children themselves. On forming Mooshku, our mission became: if it’s not good for your kids, we don’t make it. On content not being the actual product, I made the decision years ago to treat it as the product regardless. That way I know I’m always aiming to deliver the best package in a TV show, app or anything else. But these are not the only ways to look at children’s media. The conflicts still exist.
Your approach, your own stance on all these conflicts will be your own. What is key is that you have a stance.
A couple of other things:
Next week on Thursday the 12th, I’ll be presenting a case study masterclass at Animation Dingle titled FROM BLANK PAGE TO THE BIG PITCH. Using MILLIE AND MR FLUFF as a case study, I’ll be talking through the process of taking a concept from the beginning of an idea all the way to being ready for that green light – development, pitching, tips and pitfalls and a glimpse into our rather unique production methods for Millie. Details will be up on the ANIMATION DINGLE site!
Lastly, it’s great to announce that a few of my projects have been nominated for the Irish Animation Awards. Planet Cosmo is nominated in the Kids’ Choice category and Best Writer. My app Dino Dog is nominated for Best Animation For Apps And Gaming. And Punky, which I script edited and was creative director on is also in the Kids’ Choice and Best Writer (Andrew Brenner) categories. So that’s nice!
Yesterday I saw this article about how children often miss the moral of a story. The article is true whether we’re talking preschool children or whether we’re talking kids in the 6-10 age group. Time after time, children walk away from a story having completely missed the message. Or worse, having badly misinterpreted the message.
The reasons for this are numerous. As the article points out, understanding the outcome requires stages of judgement throughout the story as cause and effect is revealed. As we approach stories as writers, we often work under the assumption that children know why characters are doing certain things whereas it is common that the audience hasn’t looked for a why. The why can be integral to understanding the final message.
Then there is that issue itself – that the moral or main message usually comes at the end. Your one-line sum up about how great it is to be yourself is simply not as likely to stick as the lead-up where each character wants to be just like the other kids and we get a song about trying not to stand out. In providing the negative example to lead to your wonderful positive message about life, chances are you may be planting that negative as the key takeaway of your story.
And then there is the fact that, as covered here recently, kids often miss bits. They’re busy, busy little people and they may not get a key line required for that “aha!” moment.
So what do we do? Well the one place I disagree with that article is the idea that we can’t predict whether a message will stick. I think it’s more likely that people just don’t ask the question. If we accept that getting the point across is difficult, we can do many things to ensure the success of that message. Many are already covered on this blog already so here are just some key suggestions:
- Make sure the message is itself simple and easily illustrated.
- Ensure that your moral/message realisation is as big and exciting as any negative parts.
- Really take the time to celebrate that message.
- Have your message run through the entire story, not just the end. Make it a running theme.
- State any key message clearly without surrounding clutter. Leave no ambiguity.
- Find a way of asking the audience to pay attention. It’s a simple trick but it works.
Do these things and the chances of your core message sticking will increase dramatically. And at that part of the process, there is one great way to know whether it is working: try it out on children and talk to them about your story.
Young children, especially early preschoolers, don’t always retain the key pieces of information your stories depend on. No, it’s not because they don’t take in information. Quite the opposite. They soak up information like sponges. The challenge for them is the sheer amount of information they are taking in while their filters and memories are developing.
So when writing, directing or creating for preschool, you can’t take it for granted that the most important line of your script was not overwritten by a child hearing a bird outside and filing that away as what bird calls sound like. You can’t assume they weren’t in the halfway point in the changeover between watching upside down and watching with their face buried in a bag of popcorn when you showed your key visual. Even if they took in the information, it leaves too much to chance to hope that it wasn’t nudged out by them wondering why the car had four wheels in one scene but they could only see two in the next.
Children are always busy.
So if your story depends on key points (and most do), remind them. Have a recap. Have several recaps. It ensures the essential points are remembered. If they missed a point completely the first time around, it gives them a chance to pick it up. Don’t fear the repetition – young kids love repetition. Just recap. The now-classic Cbeebies show Ballamory uses this perfectly, offering well-timed recaps that fit into the flow of the episode so it’s well worth studying that show if you get a chance.
One more little reminder just for you: while we’re often trained in a ‘show, don’t tell’ approach in media, for preschool children it is important you tell.
So remember to remind. Your story will thank you for it.
In the first Friday the 13th, Jason kills Kevin Bacon’s character by sticking an arrow through his neck. In the second one, he manages to impale two people together on a bed, using a spear to make a sort of human kebab. In Jason X, he picks up one girl in a sleeping bag and uses her to beat another girl to death. It goes on with death after death. The Friday the 13th films are rated 18 (or R in the US) and, whatever about kids in their mid to late teens, I imagine we wouldn’t find too many people happy to show them to kids under 10. At the very least they could inspire some severe nightmares. Of course it is important to keep in mind that those scenes are designed to make you uncomfortable, to make you wince. These scenes usually aren’t thrown out there casually. They’re set pieces in horror movies. And we wouldn’t show them to young kids.
But what about other movies?
One of the movies I enjoyed the most in 2014 was Guardians of the Galaxy. It’s rated 12 but I was watching it again (3rd time) over the break and wondering what age I would show this to my girls. I mean, it’s a huge amount of fun and adventure, has lots of laughs and I actually think Daisy would love most of this. I’d love to watch it with her. Maybe even now at age 7 she’d be fine with it?
As I was wondering about this, Groot impales two enemies through the abdomen, picks them up and uses their dying bodies to beat other people to death. Kind of reminded me of a cross between the Friday the 13th double spear kill and the sleeping bag one. Then Groot gives us a big smile and on with the show. What struck me as odd is that I have seen the movie twice before and barely noticed the level of violence in that shot. Because, contrary to how it would have been handled in a Friday movie, it is thrown out there so casually and ends with a laugh. But it’s actually pretty horrific if you think about it and it’s hardly an isolated incident in the movie.
I suddenly had a flashback to Flash Gordon movie from 1980. A character (I won’t spoil it) dies by being impaled. The movie is a fun, silly adventure romp but I saw that as a kid and what stuck with me is that one character being impaled. It burned into my mind. And now I wonder if the grown-ups even noticed.
So this all left me with some thoughts…
Firstly, most movies have their rating for a reason. Guardians is 12 and I’ll likely wait until my girls are that age to show it to them. By the way, I like Common Sense Media as a handy guide for media I haven’t seen or movies I can barely remember.
Secondly, we have this desire to share things we like and it seems like it’s about the other person but I’m not convinced it is. I have to acknowledge that a big part of that is wanting to be that person who introduces them to it for the first time, who gets to watch their reaction and gets to be the guy who is loved for showing them something awesome.
Last, and most important, is this: too easily we forget how desensitised we get to violence or anything else over the years. Think of the most basic example of seeing young kids being truly amazed by going to a train station or something like that. The sense of wonder as they look around and take everything in. But to us everything just becomes normal and boring over the decades to the point where we don’t even notice. And so it is with violence. Kids are not as desensitised as we are. Nor should they be. They might be fine with a lot of what we show them and we think we know our own kids but it is impossible to predict just what will haunt them, what will shake them inside and stay with them. And they may never tell us.
I guess it all comes back to a recurring theme on this blog: we always have to remember that we aren’t kids any more. Those extra decades count.
Wouldn’t it be great if, one day, people will ask, “Violence? What’s violence?”
Oh, some of you are going to say it’s in our nature and it will never end. The real monster is man and so on.
In our nature? Perhaps. Now. In the past.
But we evolve. We change and improve. Walking on all fours was in our nature until we evolved to walk upright. Grunting was part of our nature until we created language or moved beyond our teenage years. We have all changed for the better.
We can always change for the better.
Many years ago in darker times when dragons walked the earth (maybe), I was making a health informational safety video for children. It was a general subject that affects us all but they wanted to wrap it up in a fun cartoon for kids. Why? Because that’s where they could make a difference. In a single generation, they could make real change. That stuck with me. I knew it to be true because I grew up on Sesame Street and look what that show did. Media has an effect and that can be positive or negative – regular readers will know that’s a running theme on this blog.
So I aim for positive. And the great thing is that I know so many others are aiming for positive too. But when our Facebook and Twitter feeds are filled with horrific images that shake us to our core, worrying about our colourful shows, silly characters for cartoons and apps may seem indulgent. Trivial. Pointless.
At the very least, for a brief moment we can give some children a smile, maybe even a laugh. But it’s much more than that. What we offer children now through media becomes part of the world view of the next generation. We can do some really great things for kids, in very big ways or just in small ways. It all counts. Going back a few years, the messages in Fluffy Gardens weren’t really designed to help kids be better kids. The hope was that the stories would help those kids have the chance to become better adults. Will they? Well, those stories are just such a small part of some children’s lives and the characters will likely be long forgotten about as children grow but it all contributes. So for me when I’m coming up with new developments now at Mooshku one of my main missions is to offer kids something funny and exciting today while contributing positively to the adults they will become tomorrow. This is something I try to carry through all my work.
And if you give something positive, a message that can get children thinking, that many adults should already be thinking about, or you are inspiring a love of learning and exploration and a desire to do better, you stand a chance of making some change in a single generation. No, it’s not the same as getting on a plane and volunteering to be an aid worker or taking to the streets in protest right now and the effects are certainly hard to measure and rely on a lot of faith and time but that doesn’t make it trivial or pointless. If anything, it just serves as a reminder of the importance of getting it right.
As strange as it may seem sometimes when we’re hunched over our desks creating funny little characters, we have the potential to do some good. It all counts. In the meantime, be excellent to each other.
Last Thursday my very first app launched: Dino Dog – A Digging Adventure With Dinosaurs. I love that so many years into my career I am still finding whole new experiences and this was absolutely nothing like sending a television show out there into the wild. Here’s roughly how it went…
Is the app actually going to be released tomorrow? Really? No, something will go wrong.
Hang on, apps release on a Thursday but it’s Thursday in New Zealand right now. I message my good friend Simon in NZ – “Hey, check your store for Dino Dog!” No reply.
Wake up groggy. Check messages. He replied – it is there! Back to sleep…
Check local app store. There it is. It shows up in a search. Is it featured? No. Oh but the internet tells me that Apple only change their featured apps much later that day.
Must tweet app. Must tweet app. Must tweet app. The publisher StoryToys have not tweeted app yet. Why not? I won’t tweet until they do in case it’s a breach of app launch etiquette.
Why aren’t they tweeting the app? Is there something wrong with it? OMG, do they hate it?! Hey, they just tweeted it! TWEET, TWEET, TWEET!
StoryToys’ Chief Product Officer Emmet O’Neill gives me one piece of advice for psychological well-being: don’t obsessively flip the decks in the App Store to see if it has been featured.
Obsessively flipping decks in the App Store to see if it has been featured.
Overwhelmed by a sense of helplessness. I’ve only tweeted about it 576 times so far. Shouldn’t I be phoning people up and getting them to mention the app on their websites? Shall I call in to my neighbours to tell them about it? Should I get a t-shirt made up and just go out and wear it? Surely there must be more I can do? Will I phone Apple? I’ll phone Apple. Anyone have Tim Cook’s number?
Dino Dog is featured in the Kids section of the Irish and UK App Store! A big banner and right up there in the listing order in Best New Apps & Games. Wow. It almost looks like a real app.
Obsessively flipping decks in the App Stores around the world to see if it has been featured. Featured heavily in the German store and some others. The artwork looks really good. Someone might actually be tempted to give the app a go if this continues.
Taking a short break from obsessively flipping decks in the App Stores, I get a mail from Gavin from StoryToys who has been very busy obsessively flipping decks in the App Stores. Dino Dog is featured on the home page of the US App Store, getting the first slot in their Kids Apps & Games section. At this point, Dino Dog appears to have been featured in most of the App Stores around the world. People at Apple actually like it. I am filled with a sense of calm. I can stop flipping the decks now. It is done. Over.
Obsessively checking the App Store charts.
And that, it seems, is how an app is launched. The big thing throughout the day was this feeling of helplessness, that I should be able to do more. I’m not great at just waiting around to see what happens. I need to be doing. But at this point the hard work StoryToys had done would mean that the app would be given a chance by the right people and, from there, the app would have to speak for itself.
Since then, the app got a great write-up on Apps Playground, was in iLounge’s Apps of the Week and also featured in The Guardian’s Apps of the Week as well as some other lovely reviews and write-ups. Just as important, the feedback from friends (parents and otherwise) has been fantastic. It appears all those lofty goals for Dino Dog that seemed so out of reach at various points in the production had all been reached. One tweet even said the app “just raised the bar on quality”. Could that really be our little app?
And that is one huge difference between apps and television right there. You can work for years on a television show and then you send it into a void. Sure, millions of kids see it but the direct feedback is slow, sometimes non-existent. Not many people review preschool TV shows. It’s just the odd surprise email from parents months later. But this was intense by comparison. Very rewarding in this case but could just as easily have been devastating had the feedback been negative or the app just hadn’t been noticed at all. It is a tough space, no doubt. But I won’t dwell on that. For now, I’m just enjoying this launch.
Thanks to the Dino Dog team, StoryToys and all involved, especially Emmet O’Neill in StoryToys who was instrumental in making it happen and making it a better app than it ever would have been without him, Ciara Moore who worked so hard on it, Giant Animation who brought their dedication to quality and everyone who worked on, tested and advised on the app and those people behind the scenes on contracts etc. who often get missed. But also thanks to everyone who supported us – Meabh (who did some casting and voice direction on the app), friends and family and my old colleagues in Geronimo Productions whose enthusiasm and support keeps me going more than they’ll know.
If your kids have played the app, I do hope they have enjoyed it! If not, it’s HERE so what are you waiting for?
Space or dinosaurs? Space or dinosaurs? Two of the most fun things for kids. I had tackled space before (and likely will again!) so I felt it was time to bring some awesome dinosaur-themed fun to kids and what better way than bringing together a good story, funny characters and games and activities so children can take part in the adventure themselves?
So I teamed up with top app publisher Storytoys, who specialise in merging narrative with interactivity for kids, to bring Doug the Dog (Greatest Adventurer Ever, according to him) and Bonnie the Adventurous Little Bear to life. These two intrepid explorers began their quest to travel the world, dig for fossils and assemble amazing dinosaurs.
At its core, Dino Dog is a fun digging game in which kids guide Doug deep underground in search of bones, breaking through soil and hard rocks while enjoying air vents, crossing hot lava (Hot! Hot! Hot!), moving boulders and so much more. Look out for Dig Claws which will help Doug dig extra fast.
When kids have found enough fossil pieces, they get to break open the rocks to see what bones they have discovered – it’s like unwrapping a present. Then it’s time to clean the bones and assemble the dinosaur. So each dinosaur is a new surprise and each one is amazing. Back at the Museum, kids can learn about their dinosaurs and hopefully this introduction could spark a whole new interest or feed an already-existing one.
It’s all wrapped up in a funny cartoon story that takes Bonnie and Doug around the world facing daring challenges such as: putting up a tent, choosing an ice-cream flavour and finding Doug’s mysterious Great Uncle Grit. The stuff of legends!
The app is brimming with content with lovely animation (gorgeous work from Giant Animation) and great sounds and just a lot of fun. StoryToys have a video here so you can check it out.
So when will Dino Dog be coming out? It’s out right now for iOS! Click this link to take you to iTunes HERE or search your Apple App Store for Dino Dog. It will also be out on Android devices in the not to distant future so keep an eye out. If you like it, spread the word!
My own personal key takeaways from this year’s Children’s Media Conference:
1) For the most part, television still rules.
2) Print is still very much alive in the kids’ space.
3) Digital interactivity and games cost and people don’t like to pay for them. It’s a difficult space.
4) Some of the most exciting, innovative and most beneficial new content for kids is right in the midst of that difficult space. It’s a wonderful place to be as a content creator.
5) As much as these lines appear to be blurring on the outside, from those commissioning these forms I still get a feeling of definitive divides. TV=TV, books=books, games=games.
6) Very few people seem to see VR in the future of kids’ media or notice it is coming, contrasting with my own view that, for better or worse, I see it as an inevitability. May take a generational shift or two though.
7) No matter what end of the business – whether gatekeeper, knocking at those gates or looking for other routes – everyone is just muddling along trying to figure things out as the media world changes.
8) Many people consider this a transition period. Or is that just an expression of hope? Personally, I’m not convinced it will settle any time soon so we’re either along for the ride or we can try to positively influence the direction.
9) Apparently, I am a ‘high-functioning introvert’.
10) A huge number of people are in kids’ media for just one reason: they want to give kids something great. Those people are awesome.
That’s it. Thanks as always to Greg Childs and the organisers for pulling together a really great event. It was fantastic to hear so many varying viewpoints on the panels, to catch up with old friends and meet many Twitter friends in person for the first time. Would you believe some people aren’t on Twitter? Weird. Thanks to everyone for kind words about what we’re doing at Mooshku (one particular project seems to be going down a storm) and about my older work too. After all these years, Fluffy Gardens still gets a LOT of love! If you read this little blog and we never got to meet, be sure to say hello next year.
Tomorrow, I could have a special extra post so check back then…
Here is a reminder I like to give when talking to people about making content for children, whether writing, directing, producing and across TV and other platforms. I call it The Barney Test. It’s very simple.
First, watch this…
Okay. I’m guessing you didn’t watch it all but that’s okay. Now the next part – answer this question truthfully: did you love it? Every minute of it? Would you love nothing more than to just keep on watching more Barney?
If you aren’t shouting a big happy “YES! YES! YES!” at the screen right now, you can rest assured that you are like almost all adults on this planet. Barney isn’t meant for you. It’s not meant for me. It is meant for children. And the thing is, children LOVE Barney. Most kids adore him. In spite of what we adults might want to do to the goofy purple dinosaur, Barney has given kids a lot of entertainment and good over the years
This is the point of The Barney Test: it illustrates just how different the tastes of adults and kids are. We are not the same, not even close. It’s great if you can make something you like but if you are guided only by what you like, you lose your audience and miss the potential children’s hit that you have to offer, whether Barneyish or more parent-friendly. And wouldn’t that be a shame?
So if you ever find yourself losing focus, veering towards self-indulgence, pop on an episode and take The Barney Test as a reminder of just who your audience really is.
On a related note, Dr. Maya Götz posted a link to this wonderful document on Emotions In Children’s TV. Download the PDF and give a read. It is a really important reminder of how children experience and process events in stories and the feelings that come from those. The point towards the end about how your work is biographically rooted is so important.
Show, don’t tell – a storytelling guideline so often repeated. Rather than have someone tell us what a character is like, for example, show us a situation that illustrates that. Let the audience put it together themselves from the story you give them. It is an important guideline because, for good storytelling, it’s often right.
But is it right for young children? Not quite.
To be sure important information is coming across, you’ve really got to tell. State that important line, that key plot point, that crucial lesson. Research into educational media and children found very early on that young children will often miss inferences or more abstract thought processes required to put pieces together if the lesson is not directly stated. It has shown that you have to be far more explicit about your educational material to be sure children take it in. And if it works for educational material, it works for plot points, character traits and so on – it just happens that people have far more reason to study this in an educational context.
In short, the research says: tell.
From my own experience, it seems the difficulty is not that children don’t take in more subtle information or that they can’t put two and two together. It is that they are taking in so much information that we as content creators lose control over just exactly what parts they are retaining and processing. I have long maintained that everything a young child sees or hears goes towards forming their world view. The difficulty is that different children in different situations are taking in different things and applying them in different ways. So to control that, to make that key information clear, we must follow the guideline offered by the research: tell.
The ideal is to achieve both. Show first. This establishes context, which is so important for understanding. It allows for the possibility of some children putting the information together themselves. Then tell. Hit the information home by telling, as clearly as possible. Those children who were a step ahead of you will feel really good about that (give them a chance to get there first) and it will solidify the information for them. Those kids who weren’t quite there yet will already have the context so that, when you state the information, it makes perfect sense and falls into place instantly.
This way you are now in control of the information, be it an educational lesson or a key plot point. So show… but also tell.